National Drinking Water Policy 2009

The policy was developed in 2009 which aims to provide a guiding framework to the Federal Government, Provincial Governments, State of the Azad and Jammu Kashmir (AJK) Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA), Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Local Governments, development authorities and other organizations to address the key issues and challenges facing Pakistan in the provision of sustainable access to safe drinking water.

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Biological Treatement of Tannery Wastewater Using Activated Sludge Process

A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time (θ). The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours.

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Thirsty Cities: Analyzing Punjab Drinking Water Policy

This book is written by Dr. Imdad Hussain, Phd describing the water situation in Punjab, the largest province of Pakistan. It gives an insight on current situation of water in Punjab by analysing Punjab Drinking Water Policy an budget allocation and spending with reflection on this sector by considering the clean drinking water as basic right of every citizen. The book also narrates the way future for the sector by using trend of Arif Hassan and WaterAId equity and inclusion prespectives.

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Closing the Gender Gap: Punjab Water Supply and Sanitation Project

This paper looks at how on ADB water supply project developed female beneficiaries into change agents. The paper summarizes the planning, design and implementation of gender specific components that made the water supply project the success that it is. The benefits that the women are receiving, and passing on to their households and communities are not just project bi-products. The benefits were carefully planned and designed for. As a result, it was not just their improved access to water that is improving women’s quality of life.

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Budget Analysis of Water and Sanitation Agency, Gujranwala: Equity and Inclusion Perspective

This study of the budget of Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA), Gujranwala (hereafter referred to as WASA-G) has been conducted in the framework of public finance using the principles of equity and inclusion. It strives to understand the functioning and the problems in the budget and the budget planning, allocation and use by WASA-G. It also studies the budget sensitivity towards the very important concepts of equity and inclusion and the provision of water and sanitation services on these principles to the urban population of Gujranwala. Our purpose is not only to identify the limitations in the budget of WASA-G but to also generate awareness amongst the users and the providers of the budgetary issues.

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Sanitation and Water for All: Pakistan Sector Status Report 2012

This report is not meant as a detailed sector review and analysis, or a comprehensive critical appraisal of the sector, as each chapter and section is a volume of study in itself. It has been developed as a background study to provide an overview of the sector in preparation for the high level meeting of Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) planned for April 2012. Sanitation and Water for All is an international alliance which seeks for prioritization of sanitation and water in development plans of country’s especially those that are off-track to meet their MDG targets.

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Exploring Needs of Secondary Sewers to Connect Slums and Squatter Settlement with Primary Network in

This research study was conducted to explore the need of secondary sewers which could connect street level (tertiary) sewers of slums and squatter settlements to main sewer lines (primary sewerage net-work). The area profiles (summary of information) of different slums and squatter settlements (about three) were prepared. The identification of secondary sewers is made indicating that how long secondary sewers are required along with number of houses in each street, number of vacant plots in each street, number of houses in the settlement, length of secondary sewers and estimated cost of each secondary sewer work.

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A Study of Problems of Water Supply and Draiange of Lahore Zone Using The Numerical Modelling

Water supply of Lahore is out of ground water. At present for a population of about 40 Lakhs, 600 cusecs are being pumped out from an area of nearly 200 square miles. This corresponds to a withdrawal of about 3.0 cusecs per square mile. This has caused a decline of ground water form a depth of about 15 feet to a maximum of 70 feet. The study also describes the future picture of ground water in Lahore. In this paper, computer studies have been carried out to determine the best successful method of recharge, possibilities of inflow of saline water and its counter measures

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Existing Situation of Sewerage in Lahore City and its Impacts on River Ravi

Untreated wastewater when discharged into any receiving water body such as rivers, makes the water unfit for human consumption. River Ravi has a major contribution in recharging of groundwater aquifer of Lahore and its surroundings. However, the flow of river has drastically decreased. The manuscript represents an overview of the current scenario of municipal sewerage and toxic industrial effluents generation in Lahore city and untreated wastewater being disposed off into River Ravi. This is a serious threat to the environment particularly the quality of groundwater which is only source of water supply to the whole city. Increased level of pollutants in the river may be more dangerous and may create serious threats to groundwater quality and local environment in near future. On the basis of data analysis and conclusion drawn, some recommendations have been given in the study to avoid further deterioration of River Ravi.

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Microbiological Quality of Bottled Water Available in Lahore City

A large number of infectious diseases are transmitted primarily through the water supplies contaminated with human and animal excreta. This study was undertaken for the microbiological testing of bottled water used for drinking purposes by the public in the Lahore city. This descriptive study was undertaken for the microbiological testing of bottled water used for drinking purposes by the public in the Lahore city. Twenty-four samples were collected at investigator’s convenience. Microbiological testing was performed using the membrane filter technique. Of the 24 samples tested, two (8.3%) were found to be contaminated with bacteria found in human or animal excreta. Although only 8.3% samples were found to be unsafe bacteriologically, this emphasizes that all bottled waters should not be taken for granted to be safe for consumption and may need to undergo additional processing by the consumers.

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Drinking Water Quality in Punjab

There is scarcity of data pertaining to drinking water quality in Punjab. In general both rural and urban water supplies have been found contaminated by faecal matter. Land disposal of certain industrial effluents and the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides have degraded the groundwater quality in certain parts of the province to unacceptable levels. Areas like Kasur. Raiwind and Manga have high fluoride concentrations in groundwater which have caused serious health implications, especially in children. An analysis of the available data reveals that diarrhoea occupies second position amongst the IS top priority diseases in children upto 5 ye~rs of age indicating poor quality of drinking water supplies. The paper highlights strategies to ensure safe drinking water supplies to the communities.

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Water and Sanitation Mapping in Pakistan

This report is part of WaterAid’s project on Learning for advocacy and good practice – water and sanitation mapping. The present report focuses on the experience of WaterAid’s partner in Pakistan: the Orangi Pilot Project Research and Training Institute (OPP-RTI) based in Karachi. It also draws on experiences from one of OPP-RTI’s partner organisations: Anjuman Samaji Behbood (ASB) in Faisalabad.

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Impact of Solid Waste Leachate on Groundwater and Surface Water Quality

The present investigation was carried out to assess the impacts of solid waste leachate on groundwater and surface water quality at unlined dumping site. Six leachate samples collected from different locations have average values of COD and BOD 2563 mg/L and 442 mg/L, respectively. Surface water samples were collected in two different seasons (rainy and non-rainy). Samples collected during non-rainy season were found to be more contaminated than rainy season. Soil samples collected from the depth of 1.5 m are contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe & Zn) and E. coli. Presence of E.coli shows that leachate has deteriorated groundwater quality.

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Position Paper: State of Water and Sanitation in Punjab

Punjab Urban Resource Centre (PURC), a research and advocacy organization working in urban planning and development has drafted this position paper to critically examine various facets of prevailing water and sanitation situation in Punjab province. The study examined available water resources, drinking water zoning, water and sanitation quality and coverage, regulatory, policy and institutional framework and key issues in the sector. Research team collected primary and secondary data from relevant government departments, research and academic institutions, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and community to form an analysis for this paper. The study identified gaps at macro and micro levels and generated recommendations for certain strategic actions essential for improvement in the sector.

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