An Assessment of Franchise Based Urban Transport Scheme in Punjab
A noticeable implication of unprecedented expansion in size and population of major cities of Pakistan has been the demand for transport facilities and services. The generally low car ownership rate and limited access to personal motorised transport has created space for public transport to become the most efficient way of providing good access for longer distance trips within the cities. The urban public transport in cities of Punjab, the largest province of Pakistan in terms of population, has also been suffering from numerous inadequacies. In order to bring improvements in public transport services, the government of Punjab launched a franchise based transport scheme in 1999 in five major cities of the province. This paper reviews the performance of this new transport system. The analysis of data presented in this paper leads to the conclusion that the franchise scheme has been successful in laying down the foundation of bus industry and its potential can be optimised by removing the constraints in the way of its development. Nevertheless, the future of the franchise scheme will be highly dependent on the managerial competence of the regulatory authorities.
Impact of Global Institutions on Urban Transport in Pakistanis Cities
Urban transport is one of the important sectors at present experiencing drastic changes due to globalization. These changes bring various global trends in urban transport to bear on Pakistani cities. However, the relationship between globalization and transport policies is a complex one. It is important to evaluate that how global institutions bring global solutions in urban transport to Pakistani cities. The purpose of this paper is to map out the potential impact of globalization on the planning and implementation of urban transport policies in Pakistan. The aim here is to gain insight into the future planned development of urban transport in Lahore. The discussion first centres on the Urban Transport Master Plan of Lahore prepared with the technical and financial assistance of Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA). Proposals pushed by the master plan are assessed, especially high technology Light Rail Transit (LRT) along with construction of new roads. Lahore is characterized by high densities, intensely mixed land use patterns, short trip distances and a high share of walking and non-motorized transport. In question is whether huge investments in high tech solutions will, in this context, solve Lahore’s transport problems.
The paper starts with a general discussion of the concept of globalization and its impact on urban transport in developing countries. Then the City of Lahore is discussed as a case study. The Comprehensive Urban Transport Master Plan of Lahore is analysed. The current concept of sustainable development is analysed with the aim of providing sustainable urban transport in
Lahore by encouraging non-motorized transport and providing the opportunity to fast growing private vehicle users to change their travel mode. The data presented have been collected through secondary sources as a synthesis of desktop research. The paper concludes that the only solution suitable for Pakistani cities is one that has been locally designed and aims to solve the transport problems of the majority.
Improving the Environment Performance of Bus-based Transport System in Lahore-Pakistan
The bus-based public transport system in developing countries poses serious environmental challenges. This paper explores the environmental performance of buses managed and operated by private companies in Lahore under franchise initiative of Government of Punjab. The empirical evidence shows that buses pollute the air with CO and NOx emissions. The bus-based air pollution is result of obsolete engine technology, poor maintenance regime, excessive passenger load, and inadequate training of bus drivers. The problem of air pollution increases due to lack of regulatory measures on operators to maintain vehicles in good condition. The paper suggests that effective inspection and maintenance regime, careful selection of new engine technologies, mixed fuel strategy and segregated bus ways can help achieving the reduction in total vehicle emissions.
Public Transit for Urban Poor in Pakistan: Balancing Efficiency and Equity
Improving accessibility to employment, education, health, and other urban services is necessary for improving the welfare of the urban poor and low-income households. Although the rate of motorization is increasing in developing countries, the bulk of the urban poor in the developing world do not have the means to afford private motorised transport. The urban poor rely on public transit for trips that require motorised transport.
Thus, public transit plays a critical role in sustaining and improving the welfare of urban poor by providing mobility to millions. The past few decades have witnessed a continuous disinvestment in public transit by governments in Pakistan who have cut public services in an attempt to balance their books. When the government funded mass transit disappeared from the streets, the private sector stepped in to provide transit service, which left much to be desired in terms of efficient provision of quality service and safety. Recently, provincial governments in Pakistan have embarked on bus-franchising schemes, which offer exclusive service rights to operators on dedicated routes. The transit operators, in return, guarantee a certain level of service. In Punjab, for example, bus-franchising scheme has delivered hundreds of new buses now plying on intra-urban routes.
The franchised bus service is a step up in quality when compared with the para-transit service it has replaced on the select routes. However, bus franchising has raised some immediate concerns as well. For instance, the new bus service is more expensive than the service it has replaced. The expensive, albeit improved, transit system creates new hurdles for the poor households. Similarly, the fate of para-transit operators, who have lost their livelihoods because of the new bus franchising services, is not certain. The bus franchising experience in Pakistan suggests that the gains in quality and efficiency have been realised at the cost of equity.
Using a case study approach, the paper focuses on the mobility concerns of the lower and middle-income groups in the Greater Islamabad Rawalpindi Area (GIRA). The study area comprises the urban parts of the federal capital, Islamabad, and the urban areas of the neighbouring city, Rawalpindi. The paper documents the opportunities and constraints resulting from privatization of public transit in general, and bus franchising in particular, related to GIRA.
Public Transport in Pakistan: A Critical Overview
Urban transport problems in Pakistan are managed by building larger and better roads. By contrast, the principles of sustainable transport encourage using low cost public transport that could perform well in mixed land use and high density Pakistani cities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical overview of public transport policy in Pakistan from the British India period through to recent years. This overview highlights the core problem of the continuing failure of Pakistani cities to develop and manage their public transport systems in such a way as to provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability. The paper identifies several factors, including the importance of governance, capacity building, and urban planning in providing adequate, efficient, and effective public transport in Pakistan.
Quantifying the Impacts of Development in Transport System of Pakistan
The paper quantifies the impact of tax-financed public investment in infrastructure and services by mode of transportation, land, air, and water using dynamic computable general equilibrium model with a detailed module of land transport. The model includes cost of transportation namely resource cost and taxes and cost of externalities such as congestion, pollution, and accident. Congestion cost is endogenous in the model, whereas pollution and accidental effects are calculated exogenously on the basis of endogenously determined land transport services. The model measures benefits by the change in prices not only in the transport sector but also take care of the benefits to other sectors of the economy. The results show that tax financed investment has reduced share of domestic transport and cost of nonfactor services in the total value of commodities (first objective of NTC). It also reduces transport cost associated with passenger movement. Improved safety and reliability of transport operations can be concluded from reduction in environmental and accident cost (2nd objective of NTC). The transport sector development has positive impact on macro aggregates such as growth and exports.
Roads for Economic Development: An Analysis of Urban Transport Policies of New Zealand and Pakistan
Transport studies suggest that investments in urban roads have been justified in terms of easing congestion, saving time and energy, increasing safety, improving social and environmental outcomes and enhancing economic development of a city. Investments in urban roads may have many advantages as they may expand services and improve mobility and, if sustained over time, may contribute to the economic development. However, critics argue that continuous investments in urban roads result in additional traffic and ultimately increase congestion and parking problems which have reverse development impacts. These arguments challenge the conventional arguments about the economic benefits of road investments in urban areas.
This paper aims to identify the policy objectives and key arguments regarding road investments in New Zealand and Pakistan. Transport policy documents at national, regional/provincial and local levels, from both the countries, have been critically assessed utilising deep policy analysis and a „compare and contrast approach‟. Empirical policy objectives behind road investments in Lahore, Pakistan, and Wellington, New Zealand, have been analyzed. The purpose of such a comparison is to develop some understanding about the comparative transport policy issues in developed and developing countries. The paper investigates whether the factors linking transport investment with economic development have been completely met or not in the transport policies of two countries. It suggests „lack of capacity‟ as the main reason behind incoherent transport policies in Pakistan. The paper concludes by questioning the role of power-dynamics and interest groups in formulating transport policies in New Zealand and Pakistan.
Time to Change the Old Paradigm: Promoting Sustainable Urban Transport in Lahore, Pakistan
Urban transport is one of the most important sectors having a direct bearing on sustainable development because of the high growth of the transport sector’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes more important in case of Pakistan where the motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Especially in Lahore, designed transport strategies and programs have resulted in high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution, and traffic crashes. The purpose of this paper is, to review the adequacy and deficiency of transport planning in Lahore and to recommend some measures for developing a sustainable urban transport system in the city. In order to develop a sustainable transport system effectively, research has sought to refine the concept of sustainable transport to suit the particular case of Lahore according to the social, economic and environmental needs of this developing city. Sustainable transport guiding principles and a short list of indicators has been established for Lahore, as a methodological approach for the analysis of existing data. In analysis, the overall picture shows that Lahore is not only far away from sustainable having a transportation system but is also in some respects going in the opposite direction. The past approach of road building and road expansion is still continuing as a remedy for traffic congestion and environmental degradation. Even foreign aid projects are implemented as piecemeal approaches in certain domains of transport and environment. The situation is further complicated by the lack of a comprehensive urban transport policy. But some potential areas for improvement have been found during analysis, in the form of moderate to high density in the central area, mixed land use, a large number of pedestrian trips and low car ownership. All these will be helpful in establishing a sustainable transport system in future.
On the basis of analysis, and considering environmental, social and economic impacts, recommendations are proposed for Lahore. These also include town planning measures and the empowerment of all stakeholders in an integrated way. In conclusion, research has revealed that there is no single solution to achieve sustainable transport system in Lahore. Lahore’s urban transport cannot be considered in isolation because it has intimate interactions with the whole pattern of urban development. So only those solutions should be adopted that are long term and integrated.
Transport Network Lahore City
The paper examines the adequacy and deficiency of transport planning in Lahore to recommend some measures for developing a sustainable urban transport system in the city. Urban transport is one of the most important sectors having a direct impact on sustainable development. The pattern of land use and the available transportation systems in urban areas play a critical role in determining the livability and sustainability of those urban areas. Land use planning and its integration with the transport planning is most ignored issue. Traffic management and roadway construction has not kept pace with the increased mobility needs of the society. Lahore city is being the cultural, intellectual, political and economic hub of the Punjab province, has experienced adverse impacts of traffic congestion and mismanagement.
Transportation Problems in Developing Countries Pakistan: A Case-in-Point
Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing countries like Pakistan. Despite large expenditures on urban transport systems, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption. Therefore, developing countries like Pakistan, have a major crisis on their hands. Urban transport problems in Pakistan are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated Pakistani cities. This article highlights the core problem of continuing failure by Pakistani government to develop and manage their public transport systems to provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability.
Public Infrastructure and economic Growth in Pakistan: A Dynamic CGE-Microsimulation Analysis
The role of infrastructure in economic growth and welfare has been studied extensively across the literature over the past three decades. We use a dynamic CGE model linked to a microsimulation model to estimate the macro-micro impact of public infrastructure investment. Two approaches to public investment are considered in our simulations. In the first, production taxes finance the additional public infrastructure investment and in the second, foreign borrowing provides resources. Our results reveal that public infrastructure investments have the same direction of impact whether funded by taxation or international borrowing, particularly when looking at macroeconomic gains and poverty reduction in the long run. However, in the very short run, tax financing puts a strain on output in the industrial sector and thus reduces economic growth in the short run. The financing from international borrowing has a Dutchdisease-like impact in the short run, as indicated by a decline in exports.
Lahore Urban Transport Master Plan, Phase 1, Interim Report 1
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) study team is conducting “The Project for Lahore Urban Transport Master Plan in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan” in close cooperation with the Transport Department of Government of the Punjab. Under the study, the JICA study team engaged a local consultant to execute the study which purpose was to conduct a transport survey to assess the status of relevant factors.
Pakistan is the second largest country in South Asia, inhabiting a population of approximately 180 m
This study, which has been supported by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), UK, is really an initial exploration into the growing use of motorbikes in Karachi. The potential of motorbikes as an alternative means of commuting to public transport, and its advantages have been studied. However, as the research progressed, it was realised that for a proper understanding of the issue and its many nuances, a number of more detailed studies are required on each of the sections that form a part of the text of this report. It is hoped that the organisations who are involved in working on transport related and social issues will promote further research on this subject.
For this reason, this report is being sent to the individuals and organisations listed below. These include organisations that are involved with social and women issues since the study addresses the desire of women interviewed for riding motorbikes. A presentation of the study is planned at the Urban Resource Centre in Karachi.
Socially and Environmentally Sustainable Urban Transport
The presentation describes about public spaces and transport situation by giving example of Bagota that how they plan or design their routed for smoothly transportation. The concept of transmilenio is also discussed in this presentation.